While a bearing performs by rotation, this rotation generates vibration as well.
Vibration is affected by RPM, and its frequency, is called "Vibration by forced rotation"
In a ball bearing vibration is generated in axial, radial, and rotating directions. In certain bearing applications, vibration can have a significant effect.
This vibration sometimes causes other parts of the assemblies to resonate as vibration energy is emitted.
Understanding the bearing application characteristics well is an important part of selecting the right bearing specification for any application.
Vibration caused by ball revolution (fa) 


Vibration caused by retainer rotation (fb)  same as fa  
Vibration caused by ball rotation (fc) 


Vibration caused by ball pass (fd)  Zfa Z (fr  fa) 
Vibration caused by inner ring raceway dents or bumps (fe)  
Vibration in Axial direction (fet)  nZ (fr  fa) 
Vibration in Radial direction (fer)  fet ± fr 
Vibration caused by outer ring raceway dents or bumps (ff)  nZfa 
Vibration caused by ball surface dents or bumps (fg)  
Vibration in Axial direction (fgt)  2nfc 
Vibration in Radial direction (fgr)  fgt ± fa 
Vibration caused by ball revolution (Fa) 


Vibration caused by retainer rotation (Fb)  same as Fa  
Vibration caused by ball rotation (Fc) 


Vibration caused by ball pass (Fd)  ZFa Z (Fr  Fa) 
Vibration caused by inner ring raceway dents or bumps (Fe)  nZFa 
Vibration caused by outer ring raceway dents or bumps (Ff)  
Vibration in axial direction (Fft)  nZ (Fr  Fa) 
Vibration in radial direction (Ffr)  Fft ± Fr 
Vibration caused by ball surface dents or bumps (Fg)  
Vibration in axial direction (Fgt)  2nFc 
Vibration in radial direction (Fgr)  Fgt ± Fa 
Dw  : Ball diameter (mm)  Z  : number of balls 
DPW  : Pitch circle diameter (mm)  n  : Integer number 
α0  : Nominal contact angle (°)  fr  : Inner ring rotation speed (Hz) 
Fr  : Outer Ring rotation speed (Hz) 
To simplify, cos α0 = 1 could be used.
The calculations below are examples.
example.1 : When the inner ring of an R1560X2ZZ bearing is rotated at 1800RPM, vibration caused by ball or retainer revolution is calculated as follows:
fa =  1  1   2.778  × 1  × 30 = 11 Hz  
2  10.5 
As the difference in each ball gets bigger, vibration in the rotating direction also increases.
(Figure 1, 2)
example.2 : The amplitude of vibration at the vibration position calculated above for this R1560X2ZZ bearing increases when the inner and outer ring raceways deform to hexagonal, heptagonal, and octagonal shapes. (Figure 3, 4, 5, and 6)
These calculations are very helpful to analyze bearing vibration, speed fluctuation, noise, and so on.
Normal vibration in rotating direction Figure 1
Vibration in rotating direction if the difference in each ball is huge Figure 2
Outer ring raceway deformation (Triangle) Figure 3
Inner ring raceway deformation (hexagonal shape) Figure 4
Inner ring raceway deformation (heptagonal shape) Figure 5
Inner ring raceway deformation (octagonal shape) Figure 6